In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

5.1 Prerequisites for a Product to be Made from Lunar and/or Asteroidal Material

All products from lunar and near-Earth asteroidal materials must satisfy 3 criteria in the initial stages of a PERMANENT program :

  1. The component must be immediately valuable and practical, not some futuristic or esoteric gizmo.
  2. The component must be simple, using a minimum of industry to make.
  3. The component must be in potentially massive demand (literally), in terms of weight, to substantially reduce Earth launch mass needs and to justify the cost of launching industry up to process lunar and asteroidal feedstocks. For example, fuel propellant, structural materials, and large antennas are good early products. "Special" heavy components readily producible by flexible manufacturing facilities are included in this category even though they may be one of a kind.

Initially, few systems will be made from 100% lunar and asteroidal materials. But most systems consist mostly of simple components, "mostly" in terms of weight percent, which can be made from lunar and asteroidal materials. For example, the electronics and precision components can be launched from Earth to a space station and incorporated into a large structure built from lunar and asteroidal materials.

Of course, the product must be made of materials which can be readily derived from asteroidal and/or lunar materials in a near term program, but this does not appear to pose a problem for the vast majority of products.

Later, as space infrastructure and industry matures, it will become economically attractive to make the more sophisticated components in space.

One example of a near-term product is fuel propellant. When the Space Shuttle launches a communications satellite, the cargo in the Shuttle's bay consists of the satellite itself and the rocket needed to boost it to geosynchronous orbit. The fuel propellant and next stage rocket make up about 70% of the mass of the satellite in the cargo bay. The fuel propellant can be easily derived from lunar or asteroidal material instead of being launched up from Earth, thereby tripling the Shuttle's capability to launch satellites and reducing the cost of putting a communications satellite into geosynchronous orbit.

A second example is the communications satellite itself. Larger communications satellites -- with larger antennas and power sources -- are feasible once we have asteroidal or lunar materials in hand. Platforms can be built to mount and support multiple satellites (also known as "orbital antenna farms", or OAF's). The satellites on a farm can even be connected together by fiber optics, making for more capable and cheaper global communications networks, and reducing the number of relays and potential for interference ever more crowded space. The bigger antennas and power sources will allow smaller, cheaper receiving and transmitting stations on Earth. Bigger antennas mean more focussed, smaller "footprints" on Earth, relieving many interference issues with the limited radio spectrum. Most of what's needed to bring this to fruition is the capability to make beams from asteroidal or lunar materials (and the fuel propellant to put it into place).

Note: In the near-term stage, the satellite electronics will still be made and assembled on Earth and launched up, but the platforms, antennas, and power supplies will be made of mostly lunar and near-Earth asteroidal materials. The latter simple-but-massive components will make up most of the weight of future communications systems. Hence, most of future communications systems can be produced from asteroidal and lunar materials.

For another example, consider space stations, factory facilities and habitats. Most of their mass will consist of:

  • Walls
  • Beams
  • Radiation shielding, especially shields for solar flares
  • Internal fit-outs

The above components can be made from lunar fiberglass, lunar glass-ceramics, and asteroidal or lunar iron or other metals. Beams, walls, and radiation shielding are simple, mass producible parts which would constitute the vast majorith of the weight of many large products in orbit.

What is the equivalent of concrete and steel beams in space? The Moon is abundant in minerals readily usable to produce "lunarcrete" (a concrete-like structural item like granite or marble produced from thermal melts of lunar materials), ceramic beams, iron beams, fiberglass, some composites of these, glasses, and refractories. All of these can be produced in orbit using solar ovens and casting.

Metal from asteroids is readily available, especially iron and nickel. It's also not too difficult or expensive to produce metals from lunar material in the early stage of such a scenario, e.g., the lunar-abundant metals iron, aluminum, calcium, titanium, and magnesium.

Windows can easily be made from lunar glass.

Mirrors for thermal heat can be made from asteroidal nickel or lunar aluminum, on lunar glass substrate.

You get the idea...

However, don't underestimate the value of the space-based infrastructure. For example, if something goes wrong with a satellite, there will be people, fuel propellant and infrastructure there to go fix it. No more lost satellites in Earth orbit, as it will no longer be so remote. Indeed, maintenance contracts (thereby lowering the cost of insurance contracts), refuelling tankers, and entrepreneurial construction workers will have many a field day... > Products and Services > Prerequisites


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

The Permanent Space Development Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or by cryptocurrency (which is NOT tax deductible), you can donate into any of these wallets:





... or ...

Suggest this website to other people and organizations.

To get updates on PERMANENT (occasional, not frequent), get on our mailing list.

For general or specific e-mail regarding PERMANENT, please use our Feedback page.

Leave information about yourself in our people, companies, and organizations database.

If you are interested in hiring our expertise, anywhere in the world, please contact us.
We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977

Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2021 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved


P rojects to E mploy R esources of the M oon and A steroids N ear E arth in the N ear T erm

please see our

Site Map

to navigate.

For PCs, this righthand
side has a floating menu,
but if your tablet
or your PCs web browser
do not run
-- javascript --
then you must
-- navigate --
using the Site Map above.