In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

§ 4.7.1 Vapor and Droplet Deposition in Vacuum

Vacuum vapor deposition in space utilizes an electron beam to vaporize a metal sheet, billot or ingot target, and the vapor sputters off onto a mold, or is manipulated by a magnetic field to paint a mold. Parts of any shape can be made with great ease, speed and purity, using electron and particle beams. This will work much better in the vacuum and zero gravity of space.

Aluminum sheet and steel sheet have been commercially produced on Earth by vapor deposition despite the costs of creating a special environment to minimize oxygen embrittlement. (Of course, in the vacuum of space, there's no problem with oxygen embrittlement.) Electron beam guns have also been used to coat millions of square feet of architectural glass each year. "Extensive work has been done on developing high rate physical vapor deposition of metals and alloys and evaluating the mechanical properties of metals so deposited. ... [R]esearchers [have] determined that the mechanical properties of vapor deposited metals and alloys can be comparable to those of the same metals made by casting, rolling and annealing." (General Dynamics report) Thus, many standard Earth processes for deforming material by application of large mechanical forces can be replaced by vapor deposition in space.

Droplet deposition is a relatively new technique on Earth used to make unique parts, as opposed to mass produced parts, without using a mold, by adding small increments of material to an existing structure, slowly building it up into any shape desired. Machines are already available which do this by programming, using plastics, and are used to make prototypes for product development. Indeed, they have opened up a whole new industry called "rapid prototyping". It has been pointed out that there are advantages to doing this in zero gravity and without air. As of 1992, commercial droplet deposition was using only plastic, but a number of companies were working to develop rapid prototyping machines able to make metal and ceramic prototype products. This process is related to "shape welding" or "shape melting" whereby layers of weld material are fed and built up. This method has been used to make vessels up to many tons in mass.

The energy for all these processes to melt or vaporize the metal can be direct solar oven heating or electrical heating (induction, resistance, or electron beam).

Droplet deposition is slow, whereas vapor and spray deposition is fast. The process used depends upon whether the product is mass produced (justifying a mold) or unique. Droplet deposition lends itself to computerized design so that producing a new product just means reprogramming the computer to move the droplet depositor in a different sequence. Droplet deposition requires less power and lends itself to simple, flexible robots sent out to perform tasks without being in a great hurry.

One such company, Incre, Inc., has produced products by incremental droplet deposition using aluminum and other metals, presented a paper on the technique at the 1993 SSI/AIAA Princeton conference, and mentioned plans to do work with nickel and steel alloys such as is found in asteroidal metal. > Manufacturing, Industry > Manufacturing > Vapor Deposition in Vacuum


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

The Permanent Space Development Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or by cryptocurrency (which is NOT tax deductible), you can donate into any of these wallets:





... or ...

Suggest this website to other people and organizations.

To get updates on PERMANENT (occasional, not frequent), get on our mailing list.

For general or specific e-mail regarding PERMANENT, please use our Feedback page.

Leave information about yourself in our people, companies, and organizations database.

If you are interested in hiring our expertise, anywhere in the world, please contact us.
We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977

Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2021 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved


P rojects to E mploy R esources of the M oon and A steroids N ear E arth in the N ear T erm

please see our

Site Map

to navigate.

For PCs, this righthand
side has a floating menu,
but if your tablet
or your PCs web browser
do not run
-- javascript --
then you must
-- navigate --
using the Site Map above.