In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

Russian Soyuz Manned Launch

After the US Space Shuttle was retired, the Russian Soyuz system has become the only manned launch system used routinely. The International Space Station (ISS) is now entirely dependent on the Russian Soyuz for both human launch and cargo resupply. The only other human launch system is the Chinese Shenzhou (see that section).

The Russian manned launch vehicle since the 1960s has been exclusively the Soyuz rocket with the Soyuz capsule at the top, originally created by the Soviet Union and carried on by the Russian Space Agency. The Soyuz has of course undergone upgrades, but it is basically the same proven system.

As of May 2012, there had been 111 Soyuz launches, with only two launch failures, neither resulting in loss of life, in 1975 and 1983.launch failures There were two incidents of death during re-entry, with Soyuz 1 in 1967 and Soyuz 11 in 1971.reentry failures

This gives the Soyuz system a relatively high safety record for manned launch, with a 98% launch success and no loss of human life during launch.

There have been 18 manned missions to dock with the International Space Station (ISS) as of May 2012, all successful.

In addition, there have been many Soyuz-derived "Progress" cargo deliveries, which is the same system without the re-entry module.

Each Soyuz had 3 modules:

  • The human capsule for traveling in space, which is spherical
  • A "service module" which has solar panels to generate electricity and other technical support functions
  • A small re-entry vehicle which is boarded for return to Earth

Over the decades, the Soyuz brought cosmonauts to the multiple Salyut space stations (1971-1991), and the derivative multimodule Mir space station (1986-2001) before serving the International Space Station (ISS) from 2002 to date.

There are two launch sites in Russia (Kazakhstan and Plesetsk), and starting in 2011, a launch site in South America (French Guiana, the same place the European Space Agency launches its Ariane).

The Chinese Shenzhou manned capsule is modeled after the Soyuz but is larger and homemade.

References and Footnotes:
Ref: slf

Source: launch failuresThe 1975 launch failure was caused by the second and third stages not separating as planned. After the second stage broke off, the spacecraft was off course and an automatic abort sequence followed. The cosmonauts survived despite their capsule parachuting onto on a snow covered steep mountain.

The 1983 launch failure was a rocket explosion on the pad, with the manned capsule on top rocketed away to safety.

Ref: srf

Source: reentry failuresIn Soyuz-1 (1967), both the main parachute and the backup failed to deploy, the latter because the drogue parachute failed to detach (3 parachutes in all).

In Soyuz-11 (1971), a ventilation valve was jolted open during the descent sequence, resulting in loss of air and quick asphyxiation of all 3 cosmonauts. > Transportation > Earth Launchers > Russian Soyuz Manned


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

The Permanent Space Development Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or by cryptocurrency (which is NOT tax deductible), you can donate into any of these wallets:





... or ...

Suggest this website to other people and organizations.

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We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977

Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2021 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved


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