In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

ESA Rosetta Comet Orbiter and Philae Lander

In 2004, the European Space Agency launched the probe Rosetta, which will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in 2014, go into orbit around the comet for several years, and release a lander called Philae to perform on-site analysis of its surface, attaching itself by harpoons.

The long delay between launch and rendezvous is largely due to the need to get multiple gravity assists from Mars and the Earth over a period of years in order to save on fuel propellant launch costs and maintain a small budget.

Notably, during its trajectory to fly back past Earth after its trip to Mars, Rosetta was detected by a telescopes but not identified, and was mistakenly thought to be an asteroid which might impact Earth. However, during the subsequent analysis, it was quickly identified as Rosetta.

Rosetta was originally planned to visit comet 46P/Wirtanen in 2011, but problems with the Ariane launch vehicle cost postponement for 2 years which resulted in the need for a change in target. Subsequent to this, NASA is considering a probe called the "Comet Hopper" to visit Wirtanen and hop around its surface to take measurements in different places.

Along the way, Rosetta performed a fly-by of the main belt asteroids 2867 Steins in 2008 and 21 Lutetia in 2010, and took good spectroscopic readings.

For Lutetia, the analysis from the probe's data was very different from the previous analysis from Earth based telescopes and radar. Lutetia was known to be an unusual asteroid, and Earth measurements characterized it as a metal M type asteroid but with a thick silicate regolith and having some hydrated minerals on its surface. However, the probe found it to be different, albeit still unusual. The probe disproved the interpretation of hydrated or organic minerals, finding the asteroid to be water and carbon poor, and probably an enstatite or metal rich chondrite. The surface is very fine and dusty, with a thick regolith, hence its relatively smooth appearance. Lutetia is also a very large asteroid, up to 120 km in width.


For Steins, the photos are in lower resolution and I haven't seen the analysis of the probe data yet. Due to its shape, it was called the "diamond in the sky" (though there are not thought to be any diamonds on it, of course). It is also believed to be an enstatite asteroid. It is a tough one, as the big impact which cause its main crater would normally break apart an asteroid of its size.


Notably, in 2010, Rosetta helped analyze another main belt asteroid P/2010 A2, in conjunction with the Hubble telescope. This asteroid was discovered in 2010, six years after Rosetta's launch, and was initially thought to be a comet orbiting in the main asteroid belt because it had a long tail. (There do exist "main belt comets", mostly discovered in the past 10 years, but it is not known whether or not they are truly comets.) However, Rosetta looked at P/2010 A2 from a long distance, and with additional viewings by the Hubble telescope, scientists concluded that the long tail is not volatiles but is debris from a fairly recent impact.

Also, in 2004, shortly after launch, Rosetta watched the Deep Impact mission's impact with comet Tempel from a long distance, just measuring a spike in brightness.

Stay tuned for the 2014 beginning of Rosetta's multi-year orbit of the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and the Philae lander later that year.

External links:

NASA website on Rosetta

Rosetta, Wikipedia

Rosetta's Philae lander, Wikipedia

MBA P/2010 A2, Wikipedia

MBA Steins, Wikipedia

MBA 21 Lutetia, Wikipedia > Asteroids, Near Earth Objects (NEO) > Probes to Asteroids and NEOs > Rosetta Comet Lander, Orbiter


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

The Permanent Space Development Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or by cryptocurrency (which is NOT tax deductible), you can donate into any of these wallets:





... or ...

Suggest this website to other people and organizations.

To get updates on PERMANENT (occasional, not frequent), get on our mailing list.

For general or specific e-mail regarding PERMANENT, please use our Feedback page.

Leave information about yourself in our people, companies, and organizations database.

If you are interested in hiring our expertise, anywhere in the world, please contact us.
We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977

Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2021 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved


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