In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

Meteorite "Falls" vs. "Finds"

There is also a major caveat when extrapolating from meteorites to asteroids. Most meteors break apart, disperse or burn up in Earth's atmosphere. Volatile rich meteors usually explode due to heating during the fiery atmospheric entry. Soft and crumbly chondrites would be expected to break apart often, even if they were volatile poor. Irons and stony irons punch through intact much more commonly than other meteors.

Those which wind up in laboratories come in two categories: "finds" and "falls":

"Finds" are meteorites which were found on the ground unrelated to any sighting, due to the finder recognizing them to be clearly identifyable as being of nonterrestrial origin.

"Falls" are meteorites which were seen to fall from the sky and which were tracked down successfully. Meteorites found on top of the snow in Antarctica are also classified as finds. Some finds come from rooftops and the like. A few have come from cars and the street.

The main advantage of Antarctic meteorites is that everything on the snow must be a meteorite, not an Earth rock, which eliminates bias of recognition of an object. The Antarctic Meteorite Research Center (see link below) has statistics on meteorite types found in the Antarctic. As of 2012, this is 86% chondrites, 7% achondrites, 6% irons, and 1% stony irons.

There have been well organized efforts to collect Antarctic meteorites over the decades, especially from the 1970s to date. Of particular interest is areas where the ice is melting, evaporating, or just getting blown away, leaving a concentration of meteorites behind.

The only way to eliminate bias according to soft meteors (such as from extinct comets) disintegrating up in the atmosphere vs. hard ones reaching the ground is by going to asteroids themselves with a space probe.

Before going to asteroids, analysts must rely on studies performed by analyzing the light reflected off the surfaces of asteroids.

External links:

MetBase - meteorite database

A leading database and bibliography.

The Meteoritical Society

Catalog of Meteorites, Natural History Museum

Since 1847. The search feature includes statistics on frequency by group.

Encyclopedia of Meteorites

Antarctic Meteorite Research Center

ANSMET (The Antarctic Search for Meteorites program)

NASA Antarctic Meteors site > Asteroids, Near Earth Objects (NEO) > Meteorites: Samples of NEOs > Falls vs. Finds Caveat


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

The Permanent Space Development Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or by cryptocurrency (which is NOT tax deductible), you can donate into any of these wallets:





... or ...

Suggest this website to other people and organizations.

To get updates on PERMANENT (occasional, not frequent), get on our mailing list.

For general or specific e-mail regarding PERMANENT, please use our Feedback page.

Leave information about yourself in our people, companies, and organizations database.

If you are interested in hiring our expertise, anywhere in the world, please contact us.
We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977

Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2021 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved


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