In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

Highlands vs. Lowlands Geologies

Like on all planetary crusts and the dirt under your feet here on Earth, lunar material consists predominantly of silicate minerals, i.e., silicon and oxygen molecularly bonded to various metal atoms. However, the lunar highlands differ from the lunar lowlands mainly in their concentrations of the metal oxides.

The early lunar crust formed a "magma ocean" which solidified into a crust of the lightest minerals which had floated to the top, predominantly aluminum calcium silicates ("anorthositic material") about 4.5 billion years ago. In fact, this crust is quite rich in aluminum and calcium compared to Earth's crust. (Earth's crust is split into two layers, the top being richer in aluminum silicates, "SiAl", with an underlying layer of magnesium rich silicates, "SiMg".)

However, the period between 4.5 and 4.0 billion years ago was marked by heavy bombardment by meteors and asteroids, causing intense cratering.

The highlands geology is mostly composed of overlapping layers of material ejected from craters, predominantly the initial anorthosite (aluminum rich) crust. Rocks brought back from the highlands vary in age between 3.84 and 4.48 billion years old.

Today's flat lowlands "mare" regions ("mare" is Latin for "sea") formed about 4 billion years ago when immense asteroid impacts fractured the crust, allowing the lavas from 300 kilometers deep (200 miles) to erupt through the impact fractures and form vast seas of lava. (For comparison, Earth's crust today is 50 kilometers, or 30 miles, thick in most places.) This material was poor in aluminum and calcium, but rich in iron and magnesium. However, the lavas melted preexisting aluminum-rich surface materials and mixed with them. The lava was rich in the heavier radioactive elements which had initially settled well below the crust, and the radioactivity kept the molten seas of lava hot for millions upon millions of years. Mare rocks have been measured to be between 3.15 and 3.77 years old. The last molten lakes are thought to have finally solidified about 3 billion years ago.

The resulting material which makes up the surface of these ancient lava seas is rich in iron and magnesium minerals, with a remarkably high content of titanium minerals.

When you look at the moon, the mares are the darker areas, and tend to be circular in shape because they formed in giant asteroid impact spots. > Lunar Resources (Mining The Moon) > Origin and Composition > Geology, Highlands vs. Lowlands


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

The Permanent Space Development Foundation, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or by cryptocurrency (which is NOT tax deductible), you can donate into any of these wallets:





... or ...

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We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
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Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2021 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved


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