In all geologic time, the responsibilities are on our generation ... including you ...

Highlands vs. Lowlands Geologies

Like on all planetary crusts and the dirt under your feet here on Earth, lunar material consists predominantly of silicate minerals, i.e., silicon and oxygen molecularly bonded to various metal atoms. However, the lunar highlands differ from the lunar lowlands mainly in their concentrations of the metal oxides.

The early lunar crust formed a "magma ocean" which solidified into a crust of the lightest minerals which had floated to the top, predominantly aluminum calcium silicates ("anorthositic material") about 4.5 billion years ago. In fact, this crust is quite rich in aluminum and calcium compared to Earth's crust. (Earth's crust is split into two layers, the top being richer in aluminum silicates, "SiAl", with an underlying layer of magnesium rich silicates, "SiMg".)

However, the period between 4.5 and 4.0 billion years ago was marked by heavy bombardment by meteors and asteroids, causing intense cratering.

The highlands geology is mostly composed of overlapping layers of material ejected from craters, predominantly the initial anorthosite (aluminum rich) crust. Rocks brought back from the highlands vary in age between 3.84 and 4.48 billion years old.

Today's flat lowlands "mare" regions ("mare" is Latin for "sea") formed about 4 billion years ago when immense asteroid impacts fractured the crust, allowing the lavas from 300 kilometers deep (200 miles) to erupt through the impact fractures and form vast seas of lava. (For comparison, Earth's crust today is 50 kilometers, or 30 miles, thick in most places.) This material was poor in aluminum and calcium, but rich in iron and magnesium. However, the lavas melted preexisting aluminum-rich surface materials and mixed with them. The lava was rich in the heavier radioactive elements which had initially settled well below the crust, and the radioactivity kept the molten seas of lava hot for millions upon millions of years. Mare rocks have been measured to be between 3.15 and 3.77 years old. The last molten lakes are thought to have finally solidified about 3 billion years ago.

The resulting material which makes up the surface of these ancient lava seas is rich in iron and magnesium minerals, with a remarkably high content of titanium minerals.

When you look at the moon, the mares are the darker areas, and tend to be circular in shape because they formed in giant asteroid impact spots.






PERMANENT.com > Lunar Resources (Mining The Moon) > Origin and Composition > Geology, Highlands vs. Lowlands

Please provide quick feedback on this page. It is encouraging to just know people read anything on this site and care enough to give some quick feedback.

Which one are you?:
Robot
Human

How many stars would you give this page?
1 = very bad
2 = less than expected but okay
3 = average or no opinion
4 = good
5 = excellent

What is your age range?
Under 20
20-29
30-59
over 60

If you choose to submit feedback, then I wish to thank you in advance. After you click on Submit, the page will jump to the top.


Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:


If you would like to make a quick donation to our humanistic cause,
then please click on one of the buttons below (which go to PayPal).

... or send to moneymatters at permanent... (this D. N.) for PayPal or banking or other options.



If you really much prefer to send by cryptocurrency, then you can donate into a wallet of any of our cryptocoins, though this is our least preferable way to receive donations ..., so please donate this way only if it's really much more convenient or feasible for you. The wallets are included in my cryptocoin critiques opinion page.

... or ...

Suggest this website to other people and organizations.

NOTICE:

PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.



To get updates on PERMANENT (occasional, not frequent), get on our mailing list.

For general or specific e-mail regarding PERMANENT, please use our Feedback page.

Leave information about yourself in our people, companies, and organizations database.

If you are interested in hiring our expertise, anywhere in the world, please contact us.
We have people in the USA and Thailand, and can travel or consult by internet.
You can call anytime, 24/7, at +66-8-1135-7977

Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2022, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2022, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
Copyright © 1983-2022 by Mark Evan Prado, All Rights Reserved

Source: https://www.permanent.com

PERMANENT logo
P rojects to E mploy R esources of the M oon and A steroids N ear E arth in the N ear T erm

PERMANENT logo
P rojects to E mploy R esources of the M oon
and A steroids N ear E arth
in the N ear T erm



This website has a lot of text content, so here are some suggestions on how to navigate and also recognize pages you're seen already vs. still unseen pages in the SiteMap.

There are 2 ways to browse this website:

  • A menu floats on the top left (unless you have JavaScript disabled, in which case you must use our SiteMap).

    or

  • The SiteMap page.

The pulldown menu and the SiteMap are the same tree of pages and links. The pulldown menu offers + and - for expand and collapse sections/subsections/sub-subsections... of the tree, sometimes multiple levels, whereas the SiteMap has everything expanded with no + or - expand and collapse options so the SiteMap is much longer, compared to the pulldown menu if not fully expanded. You may just choose which of the two formats you prefer at a particular time.

The SiteMap colors links red which you have already visited, vs. normal blue for still unseen. It is convenient to browse the SiteMap in one tab or window, and opening pages in other tabs/windows (Ctrl-click or right-click), such as browsing the whole SiteMap to skip pages you've already seen and to choose to open pages you haven't read yet.

The pulldown menu doesn't change the color of seen pages, unfortunately, unlike the SiteMap. However, using the pulldown menu, you can quickly browse the list of sections and other pages without leaving the page you're on. The SiteMap is a separate page of its own.