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Chandrayaan 1, India's First Lunar Probe

Chandrayaan 1 was India's first lunar probe for remote sensing of the Moon to help map its minerology, 3D topography (with resolution down to 5-10 meters), and search for lunar polar water using a Moon Impact Probe to strike near the Shackleton polar crater to kick up material for the orbiter to analyze. Chandrayaan 1 was a project of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and it carried 5 ISRO payloads plus 6 additional from NASA and European space agencies into its lunar polar orbit.

The mission proved a lot of India's technology. The total cost of the mission was approximately $ 90 million.

The mission was a success in that it achieved its main objectives, though there were some problems and failures.

The mission was announced in 2003, launched in 2008, and came to an end 10 months later in 2009 due to equipment failure, the point of failure being an electrical component made in the USA and imported to India for the mission which had overheated. However, there was a flaw in the thermal shielding which resulted in the spacecraft running hotter, the heat believed to be due to sunlight as well as the Moon's reflectivity and infrared emissions, which required some improvised mitigation which compromised some parts of the mission. Nevertheless, the mission had accomplished its main goals by the time of failure.

The lunar impact probe was reported to have found water, as well as having tested some systems for a future lunar lander from India.

However, the main data on lunar polar water was the radar package (MiniSAR) which discovered or confirmed other probes' detection and quantification of ice in at least 40 permanently shadowed craters in the north pole region.

There was also an attempt for the Chadrayaan 1 probe to work together with NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at a particular moment when their locations in orbit allowed, but that experiment failed due the radar on Chandrayaan being pointed in the wrong direction (out towards space instead of down towards the target).

Chadrayaan 1 also discovered a large tunnel near the lunar equator, a lava tube. In general, lava tubes are interesting as sites of potential human habitation, as they give natural radiation and thermal shielding and a large indoor volume.

A followup probe, Chandrayaan 2, a lunar lander probe, is under construction and scheduled for launch in 2014 or 2016. It is a joint project with the Russian Space Agency.

External links:

Chandrayaan 1 on Wikipedia

Chandrayaan 1, official ISRO info

Chandrayaan 2 on Wikipedia

Chandrayaan advocate website, open participation > Lunar Resources (Mining The Moon) > Probes, History and Future > Chadrayaan 1


PERMANENT needs a PHP / MySQL (actually, MariaDB) programmer. Are you a PHP / MySQL programmer interested in getting into space development as a career, or already working in space development? Or do you know somebody else who might be interested?

There is an ongoing process to update this website in 2019 with a target relaunch in 2020.
This website is actually very out of date. Much of the website text content was written in the 1980s to early 2000s, but that's a different matter. As regards PHP / MySQL, some offline databases go into the 2010s, as regards professional publications, engineers, companies, etc., and this is what we need programming help with. We are updating our databases on people, organizations, publications, and other things, for open source space development for all.

The current status is we have some working databases which we have been using internally for a long time for organizing professional publications, and to track people (authors, R&D people, other professionals, quality volunteers, journalists, etc.) and organizations. We want to put information online for the general public pending a security review of the programming code.

Step 1 is fixing some bugs in what we already have, the PHP code. It is functional, and been used a long time, but there are some bugs.
Step 2 will be improving the system. Some small improvements would help its usability.
Step 3 will be a security check for putting it online for the general public to be able to access and use, but with reasonable protection against hackers.
After Step 3, the main mission is accomplished, as regards PHP / MySQL, though of course we hope to keep people engaged and happy, and the sky's not the limit.

This is a volunteer, unpaid role at this point in time. A limited paid role would be considered on a tight budget, such as for at least bug fixing with some minor improvements, and/or a security review of our code before it goes online publicly. If you or one of your friends or associates may be interested, please send an email to spaceprogrammer at ... of course this domain.

Reasons to do something yourself:

  • It will help save life on our special planet -- be part of the solution in your generation.
  • It will create and secure a better future for your children and grandchildren.
  • It could be an interesting, cool, and a fun adventure for your life!

You can join us and volunteer to help out,

... or ...

If you're short on time, you can just donate:

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Text by Mark Prado, Copyright © 1983-2021, All Rights Reserved.
Many website artistic design elements by Sam Fraser, Copyright © 1999-2021, All Rights Reserved.

Except where specifically stated otherwise,
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