Space Law and Policy Library

International Agreements
United States Instruments
Proposed US Legislation
Non-US Documents
Articles and Essays
Reports and Position Papers
University Lesson Plans
Space Law & Policy Bibliography








INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

The Outer Space Treaty
The Rescue and Return Agreement
The Liability Convention
The Registration Convention
The Moon Treaty
Agreement Relating To The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
The ABM Treaty
Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space
Principles Governing Direct Television Broadcasting
Principles Relating to Remote Sensing
Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space
Declaration on International Cooperation in Outer Space

General Assembly Resolutions

1472 (XIV). International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
1721 (XVI). International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
33/16. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space [pdf]
37/83. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
37/89. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
37/90. 2nd UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
38/70. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
39/59. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
39/96. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
40/87. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
41/53. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
41/65. Principles relating to the remote sensing of the Earth from space
42/33. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
42/68. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
43/56. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
43/70. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
44/46. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
44/112. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
45/55. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
45/72. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
46/33. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
46/45. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
47/51. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
47/67. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
48/39. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
48/74. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
49/33. Enlargement of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
49/34. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, including the question of the review of the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
50/27. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
51/44. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
52/37. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
52/56. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
53/45. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space [pdf]
54/53. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
54/67. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space [pdf]
54/68. Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
55/32. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
55/122. International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
56/23. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
57/57. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
57/116. International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
58/36. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
58/89. International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
58/90. Review of the Implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]


Bilateral Space Station Agreements

Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The Canadian Space Agency Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The Government of Japan Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The European Space Agency Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The Russian Space Agency Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
Principles Regarding Processes and Criteria for Selection, Assignment, Training and Certification of ISS (Expedition and Visiting) Crewmembers


UNITED STATES INSTRUMENTS

Commercial Space Act of 1998 [MS Word]
Commercial Space Launch Activities Act [49 USC, Subtitle IX, Chapter 701]
Commercial Space Transportation Competitiveness Act of 2000 [pdf]
Communications Satellite Act
International Maritime Satellite Telecommunications Act
Land Remote Sensing Policy Act
The National Aeronautics and Space Act
Patents in Space [35 USC 105]
Space Trade and Cooperation [22 USC 5871 et seq.]
Agreement on Federal Interaction with Launch Site Operators
AST Regulations


EXECUTIVE ORDERS & DIRECTIVES

PROPOSED LEGISLATION

H.R. 2504 - Zero Gravity, Zero Tax Act of 2001 (July 16, 2001) [pdf]
H.R. 2443 - Space Tourism Promotion Act of 2001 (July 10, 2001) [pdf]
H.R. 2426 - Remote Sensing Applications Act of 2001 (June 28, 2001) [pdf]
H.R. 2177 - Invest in Space Now Act of 2001 (June 14, 2001) [pdf]
H.R. 1931 - Spaceport Equality Act (May 22, 2001) [pdf]
H. CON. RES. 107 - Expressing a declaration of space leadership (April 25, 2001) [pdf]
S 1250 [NASA Authorization for Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999 (Introduced in the Senate)]
HR 1275 [1997 NASA Authorization]
International Space Station Draft Regulations Concerning Advertising
Licensing and Safety Requirements for Operation of a Launch Site
Commercial Space Transportation Reusable Launch Vehicle and Reentry Licensing [Notice of Proposed Rulemaking - April 21, 1999]
Expected Casualty Calculations for Commercial Space Launch and Reentry Missions [Draft Advisory Circular, AC 431.35-1, April 12, 1999]
Reusable Launch Vehicle System Safety Process [Draft Advisory Circular, AC 431.35-2, April 16, 1999]

OTHER NATIONAL DOCUMENTS

Australia
Space Activities Act of 1998 [Assented to 21 December 1998]
Launching Safely into Space - Proposed Safety Regime for the Australian Space Launch Industry [pdf]

Argentina
Creation of the National Commission on Space Activities, National Decree No. 995/91
Establishment of the National Registry of Objects Launched into Outer Space [pdf]

Brazil
Law Establishing the Brazilian Space Agency, Law No. 8.854 of 10 February 1984 [Portuguese]
Resolution on Commercial Launching Activites from Brazilian Territory, Resolution No. 51 (26 January 2001) [Portuguese]
Regulation on Procedures and on Definition of Necessary Requirements for the Request, Evaluation, Issuance, Follow-up and Supervision of Licenses for Carrying out Launching Space Activities on Brazilian Territory, Portaria AEB (Administrative Edict), No. 27

Canada
Canadian Space Agency Act

Chile
Establishment of a Presidential Advisory Committee known as the Chilean Space Agency, Supreme Decree No. 338

China
China's Space Activities

European Community
Convention For The Establishment Of A European Space Agency

supplement to Directive 91/263/EEC in respect of satellite earth station equipment [93/97/EEC]
on the introduction of satellite personal communication services in the Community [93/C 339/01]

Japan
Law Concerning National Space Development Agency of Japan, Law No. 50 of 23 June 1969, as amended
Law concerning Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Law Number 161 of 13th December 2002

Norway
Act on Launching Objects from Norwegian Territory into Outer Space, No. 38, 13 June 1969

Russian Federation
About structure of management of space activity in Russian Federation, Presidential Edict No. 185 (25 February 1992)
On the Organization of the Further Utilization of the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Interests of the Russian Federation's Space Activity, Presidential Edict No. 2005 (24 October 1994)
About Space Activity, Decree 5663-1
Statute on Licensing Space Operations, Decree No. 104 (2 February 1996)
On Measures to Fulfil the Russian Federal Space Program and International Space Agreements, Decree No. 422 (12 April 1996)
Regulations of the Russian Space Agency, Resolution No. 468 (15 May 1995)

South Africa
Space Affairs Act (1993)
Space Affairs Amendment Act (1995)

Spain
Establishment in Spain of the Registry of Objects Launched into Outer Space Royal Decree No. 278-1995

Sweden
Act on Space Activities (1982)
Decree on Space Activities (1982)

Ukraine
Ordinance of the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine on Space Activity (15 November 1996)

United Kingdom
Outer Space Act (1986)

Articles and Essays

Acenbrak, Spacelift 2025: The Supporting Pillar for Space Superiority
Air University, Spacecast 2020
Barnes, Virtual Space Control: A Broader Perspective [pdf]
Battaglia, A Survey of the Italian Space Debris Related Activities
Bell, Bender & Carey, Planetary Asteroid Defense Study
Belote, The Weaponization of Space: It Doesn't Happen in a Vacuum
Billman, The Inherent Limitations of Spacepower: Fact or Fiction?
Bruner, National Security Implications of Inexpensive Space Access
Collins, Legal Considerations for Traffic Systems in Near-Earth Space
Collins, The Regulatory Reform Agenda for the Era of Passenger Space Transportation
Collins & Ashford, Potential Economic Implications of the Development of Space Tourism
Collins & Williams, Towards Traffic Control Systems for Near-Earth Space
Collins & Yonemoto, Legal and Regulatory Issues for Passenger Space Travel
Curry, Legal Implications Relating to International Cooperation
Danilenko, Outer Space and the Multilateral Treaty-Making Process
Davis, Internationalization of Space: Increasing Cooperation with Our Allies
Fought, Legal Aspects of the Commercialization of Space Transportation Systems
Greaves & Greer, The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Acquisition and Combat Capability
Gupta, New Satellite Images For Sale: The Opportunities and Risks Ahead
Hashimoto, The Space Plane and International Space Law
Hashimoto, The Status of Astronauts Towards The Second Generation of Space Law
Hermida, Argentine Space Law And Policy
Lafferanderie, Space Law Relevant to Astronomy
Lessard, An Update on Canadian Space Activities
Lootens, Space Force 2020: A Force for the Future
McKinley, The Guardians of Space: Organizing America's Space Assets for the Twenty-First Century
Mendell, The Need for a New Political Covenant on Human Spaceflight
Meyer, Arms Control Options in and from Space [pdf]
Millsap, Organizational Options for the Future Aerospace Force
Newberry, Space Doctrine for the 21st Century
Oberg, Space Power Theory
O'Neill, Alternative Plan for U.S. National Space Program
Patterson, China's Space Program and Its Implications for the United States [pdf]
Platoff, Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon
Potomac Institute, The International Space Station Commercialization Study
Raymond, Spaceports and Airports: A Historical Comparison
Rife, On Space-Power Separatism
Roberts, Ensuring the Best of All Possible Worlds: Environmental Regulation of the Solar System
Roberts, A Lost Connection: Geostationary Satellite Networks and the International Telecommunication Union
Roberts, Needed: A Private Property Standard for Space
Roberts, Planning a Trip Into Space? Bring Your Lawyer Along for the Ride
Roberts, Space Business Incentives: It's Time to Act
Roberts, Pace & Reynolds, Playing the Commercial Space Game: Time for a New Rulebook?
Schroeder, Developments in Agreements on International Trade in Commercial Launch Services
Schrogl, Basic Space Science in a Future UNCOPUOS: Emphasizing the Role of Developing Countries
Shaw, The Influence of Space Power upon History (1944-1998)
Silber, A Little Piece of Heaven
Smith, NASA’S Space Station Program: Testimony Before The Subcommittee On Space And Aeronautics, U.S. House Of Representatives [1999]
Spencer and Cashin, Space and Air Force: Rhetoric or Reality?
Stapp, Space Dominance: How the Air Force Plans to Control Space
Tatsuzawa, The Regulation of Commercial Space Activities by Non-Governmental Entities in Space Law
Tatsuzawa, Space Commercialisation Law and Policy in Japan
U.S. Army, Army Space Reference Text
Wasser, How To Get Private Enterprise To Pay For Permanent Space Settlements
White, Implications of a Proposal for Real Property Rights In Outer Space
Woods, NASA, Post-Apollo and the Rise of the Space Shuttle: A Glance at the Definition of a Launch Vehicle [pdf]

Reports and Position Papers

United States Congressional Research Service
CRS, China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology 1998 [pdf]
CRS, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An Overview and FY1999 Budget Analysis [pdf]
CRS, National Missile Defense: Status of the Debate 1998 [pdf]

United States Department of Defense
DoD, Army Space Policy
DoD, DoD Policy on the Use of Former Soviet Union Propulsion in Space Launch Vehicles
DoD, DoD Space Policy, July 1999 [pdf]

United States General Accounting Office
GAO, Defense Space Activities: Continuation of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program's Progress to Date Subject to Some Uncertainity [2004] PDF
GAO, Defense Acquisitions: Space-Based Radar Effort Needs Additional Knowledge before Starting Development [2004] PDF
GAO, Defense Space Activities: Additional Actions Needed to Implement Human Capital Strategy and Develop Space Personnel [2004] PDF
GAO, NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits [2004] PDF
GAO, Defense Acquisitions: Improvements Needed in Space Systems Acquisition Policy to Optimize Growing Investment in Space [2004] PDF
GAO, Space Shuttle: Further Improvements Needed in NASA's Modernization Efforts [2004] PDF
GAO, NASA: Shuttle Fleet's Safe Return to Flight Is Key to Space Station Progress [2004] PDF
GAO, Defense Acquisitions: Despite Restructuring, SBIRS High Program Remains at Risk of Cost and Schedule Overruns [2004] PDF
GAO, Military Space Operations: Common Problems and Their Effects on Satellite and Related Acquisitions [2003] PDF
GAO, Missile Defense: Alternate Approaches to Space Tracking and Surveillance System Need to Be Considered [2003] PDF
GAO, Space Transportation: Challenges Facing NASA's Space Launch Initiative [2002] PDF
GAO, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Leadership and Systems Needed to Effect Financial Management Improvements [2002] PDF
GAO, Space Surveillance Network: New Way Proposed To Support Commercial and Foreign Entities [2002] PDF
GAO, NASA: Better Mechanisms Needed for Sharing Lessons Learned [2002] PDF
GAO, NASA: Status of Plans for Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges [2002] PDF
GAO, Export Controls: Clarification of Jurisdiction for Missile Technology Items Needed [2002] PDF
GAO, NASA's X-33 and X-34 Programs [2001] PDF
GAO, NASA: International Space Station and Shuttle Support Cost Limits [2001] PDF
GAO, NASA: Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges [2001] PDF
GAO, Space Transportation: Critical Areas NASA Needs to Address in Managing Its Reusable Launch Vehicle Program [2001] PDF
GAO, Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure [2001] PDF
GAO, Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: National Aeronautics and Space Administration [2001] PDF
GAO, Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers [2000] PDF
GAO, Space Shuttle: Human Capital Challenges Require Management Attention [2000] PDF
GAO, Space Shuttle: Human Capital and Safety Upgrade Challenges Require Continued Attention [2000] PDF
GAO, Space Station: Russian Compliance With Safety Requirements [2000] PDF
GAO, Export Controls: Better Interagency Coordination Needed on Satellite Exports [1999]
GAO, Space Station: Cost to Operate After Assembly is Uncertain, Letter Report [1999]
GAO, Space Station: Russian Commitment and Cost Control Problems, Letter Report [1999]
GAO, Space Station: Status of Russian Involvement and Cost Control Efforts, Testimony [1999]
GAO, Space Transportation: Progress of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, Testimony [1999]
GAO, Space Transportation: Status of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, Letter Report [1999]
GAO, International Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements [1998]
GAO, Space Exploration: Power Sources for Deep Space Probes [1998]
GAO, Space Shuttle: Upgrade Activities and Carryover Balances [1998]
GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Problems [1998]
GAO, Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements [1998]
GAO, Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan [1998]
GAO, Access to Space: Issues Associated With DOD's Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Prog... [1997]
GAO, Defense Satellite Communications: Alternative to DOD's Satellite Replacement Plan... [1997]
GAO, NASA: Major Management Challenges [1997]
GAO, Results Act: Observations on NASA's May 1997 Draft Strategic Plan [1997]
GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Problems Continue to Worsen [1997]
GAO, Weather Satellites: Planning for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Prog...[1997]
GAO, Earth Observing System: Concerns Over NASA's Basic Research Funding Strategy [1996]
GAO, NASA Facilities: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies [1996]
GAO, NASA Infrastructure: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies [1996]
GAO, NASA Personnel: Challenges to Achieving Workforce Reductions [1996]
GAO, Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Costs Savings [1996]
GAO, Space Shuttle: Need to Sustain Launch Risk Assessment Process Improvements [1996]
GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue [1996]
GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue [1996]
GAO, NASA Budgets: Gap Betw. Funding Requirements & Projected Budgets Has Been Reopened [1995]
GAO, NASA's Earth Observing System: Estimated Funding Requirements [1995]
GAO, Space Shuttle: Declining Budget and Tight Schedule Could Jeopardize Space Station Support [1995]
GAO, Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate W/n Future Projected Funds [1995]
GAO, Space Station: Estimated Total U.S. Funding Requirements [1995]
GAO, NASA Procurement: Challenges Remain in Implementing Improvement Reforms [1994]
GAO, National Space Issues: Observations on Defense Space Programs and Activities [1994]
GAO, Space Shuttle: NASA's Plans for Repairing or Replacing a Damaged or Destroyed Orbiter [1994]
GAO, Space Station: Plans to Expand Research Community Do Not Match Available Resources [1994]
GAO, Space Station: Update on the Impact of the Expanded Russian Role (Letter Report) [1994]
GAO, Space Science: Causes & Impacts of Cutbacks to NASA's Outer Solar System Exploration...[1993]

United States House of Representatives
Select Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China (The "Cox Report")

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA, Cassini Final Environmental Impact Statement
NASA, Commercial Space Transportation Study
NASA, Final Environmental Impact Statement of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator
NASA, NASA Oversight of Russian Biotechnology Research [2000]
NASA, Office of Space Science Technology Policy
NASA, Principal Recommendations of the Augustine Commission [1990]
NASA, Strategic Plan

National Research Council
NRC, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment [1995]
NRC, Views of the Committee on Radio Frequencies Concerning Frequency Allocations for the Passive Services at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference [1995]

NSTC
NSTC, Interagency Report on Orbital Debris [1995]

Office of Commercial Space Transportation
OCST, The Effects of Parachutes on Risk Mitigation to Third Party Property Individuals
OCST, Financial Responsibility for Reentry Vehicle Operation
OCST, Guidelines for Compliance with the NEPA, et al. for the Development of Commercial Space Launch
OCST, Hazard Analysis of Commercial Space Transportation
OCST, Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Commercial Reentry Vehicles
OCST, Risk Sensitive Assessment of Flight Termination System on Reentry Vehicles
OCST, Space Applications of Radioactive Materials
OCST, Voluntary Industry Standards and Their Relationship to Government Programs

Office of Technology Assessment
OTA, The National Space Transportation Policy: Issues for Congress [1995]
OTA, U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Space [1995]
OTA, The Future of Remote Sensing From Space: Civilian Satellite Systems and Applications [1993]
OTA, Exploring the Moon and Mars: Choices for the Nation [1991]
OTA, Access to Space: The Future of U.S. Space Transportation Systems [1990]
OTA, Orbiting Debris: A Space Environmental Problem [1990]
OTA, Verification Technologies: Measures for Monitoring Compliance With the START Treaty [1990]
OTA, Space Stations and the Law: Selected Legal Issues [1986]
OTA, Civilian Space Policy and Applications [1982]

United Nations
UN, Int'l Cooperation in Space Activities for Enhancing Security in the Post-Cold War Era
UN, Questionnaire On Possible Legal Issues...: Replies From Member States
UN, Report Of The Legal Subcommittee Of COPUOS On The Work Of Its Thirty-fifth Session [1996]
UN, Report of the 2nd UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [1982]


LESSON PLANS & SYLLABI

Coordinate Systems Overview
Resources From Space
General Principles of Space Law
Law of Space Applications
Government Regulation of Space Activities
Space Politics and Policy [pdf]